Intellectual Standards

This is an interesting topic and my favourite one in forum PIDP 3250.

“Universal intellectual standards are standards which must be applied to thinking whenever one is interested in checking the quality of reasoning about a problem, issue, or situation” (Elder & Paul, 2010).

Intellectual standards are a method of determining if our thoughts and beliefs are valid, and not influenced by emotion or prior conditioning.

There are different intellectual standards that are used to assess critical thinking and creative thinking.

You can access to the following resources to get a quick look on these standards.


Introvert and Extrovert

…and we entered a new culture that historians call the culture of personality you know what happened is we had evolved from an agricultural economy to a world of big business and so suddenly people are moving from small towns to the cities and instead of working along…and the problems that we are facing today and feels like science and in economics are so vast and so complex that we are going to need armies of people coming together to solve them working together but I am saying that the more freedom that we give introverts to be themselves the more likely that they are to come up with their own unique solutions to these problems.

REFLECTIVE This quotation argues that culture evolves with the economy development and at the same time, the economy, the technology and the culture together have an influence on method of our thinking and learning. It shows one reason why teamwork is crucial and popular in our society and community and appeals educators to consider the personality of learners to personalize our teaching effectively.

INTERPRETIVE I think that belief, value and behavior are the reflections of the specific economy and culture environments, which evolves gradually and continuously. From the viewpoint of economic history, it is the technology advancement and innovation driving industrialization developments, with great transformation from agricultural family economy to modern business market economy. In modern life, reputation and brand are crucial not only to business entity but also, to the individual. Therefore, extroverts gain advantages to demonstrate themselves in class, in workplace, and in public speaking, anyway they are willing to speak out and more engaged in 13 PIDP 3250 Reflective Writing 11 March 2018 (W5) branding. The similar condition applies to the business and company, which make great efforts to marketing their products, service even culture, to make sure they gain a favorable advantage over the competitors. It cannot but a positive circulation. Extroverts are rewarded more, and the teamwork are well encouraged to motivate extroverts standing out. In fact, according to the research Susan mentions, we have introverts that accounts for one third of population. They seem dim in our society that cannot stop talking, because they are slow reaction, silent in discussion and embarrassed in public. But it is not the whole story. Introverts have great power contributing to our society in their ways. Especially in a rapid-paced internet information time, we can easily access to tons of resources and opinions, and it will be a challenge to think by yourself and evaluate what you read and what you see and listen. Usually introverts have a comparative advantage of devoting mind to thinking over and over. When critical thinking and creative thinking become more and more excluded valued in our society full of intelligent artificial, introverts show their strength. It is definitively a trend. I don’t think this speech will be so successful and get sympathetic responses of audience in ten years before. A decade or more years ago, information is still scarce, to some extent, we need exchange and share to get more valuable information with teamwork or group discussion. But today, we are in a quite different era, faced with overwhelming explosion information, and we really incline to spend more room and time thinking and evaluating what we get.

DECISONAL As an educator, I consider that we can try do something to providing more freed and comfortable community to introverts, motivating them learning and more engaged in class. The first is to try to understand your students well, connection-built is the priority before your delivering the knowledge. It takes time, but you must do this if you want to help them. The second is blending teamwork with self-assignment, and oral practice with writing paper, online teaching with lecturing, one to one tutoring together with small group. Assignment and teaching with various forms available facilitate and encourages learners try best with own way. The third is to encourage all without prejudice and bias in class. It is important to keep in mind the difference of introverts and extroverts.

• Introverts Think—Act—Think

• Extroverts Act—Think—Act

It’s important to honor these differences rather than try to fix them. Instead of using coercion to force participation among introverted students, we must strive for “cultivating engagement from both camps.” What we need is strategies and techniques, not making a discrimination between extroverts and introverts.


Flow Theory

Flow theory is from one Forum of PIDP 3250, facilitated by Laura Hadwin.

  1. Intense and focused concentration on the present moment
  2. Merging of action and awareness
  3. A loss of reflective self-consciousness
  4. A sense of personal control or agency over the situation or activity
  5. A distortion of temporal experience, one’s subjective experience of time is altered
  6. Experience of the activity as intrinsically rewarding

From: Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990) Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper & Row.

An interview with the creator of flow theory, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi:

A TED Talk with Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi



Questioning Techniques 3

Wait time


“Wait time is the period of silence between the time a question is asked and the time when one or more students respond to that question.” (TeacherVision, 2015)

The concepts of wait time 1 (pausing after asking a question) and wait time 2 (pausing after a student response are introduced in Dr. Mary Budd Rowe’s article. 

In 1972, Dr. Mary Budd Rowe published a paper summarising five years of study into wait times. She observed that when teachers allowed at least 3 seconds of wait time, there were a number of positive changes in the classroom.

“There are increases in the length of the response, the number of unsolicited appropriate responses, student confidence, incidence of speculative responses, incidence of child-child data comparisons, incidence of evidence-inference statements, frequency of student questions, and incidence of responses from “relatively slow” students. The number of teacher questions which do not elicit a response decreases.” (Rowe, 1972)

By waiting longer for a response, a teacher will involve more class members, get better quality answers and students are more likely to ask their own questions.


TeacherVision 2015, Your Secret Weapon: Wait Time, Teaching Methods and Strategies, TeacherVision, viewed on 15 April 2015,

Video: Ferris Bueller’s Day off:

Video: Positively MAD Teaching Tip #7:Questioning Skills: Wait Time:

Questioning Techniques 2

Techniques of Effective Questioning

1. Establish an appropriate environment. Only certain questions should be posed in front of students; “bedside” (beginning) questions should focus principally on knowledge and recall and to a lesser extent on comprehension.
2. Create a climate conducive to learning. A happy facial expression, nod, or verbal acknowledgement of a correct response encourages other students to participate in the discussion. Pose questions in a non-threatening way and receive answers in a supportive fashion. A harsh tone, especially when used to interrupt a response from the student, can be devastating for both the student and his or her peers.
3. Prepare the students for the questioning session and discussion. Explain to students the format, expectations, and how this knowledge will help them.
4. Use both pre-planned and emerging questions. Pre-planned questions are those incorporated into the teaching plan that are asked during the teaching session to introduce new concepts, focus the discussion on certain items, steer the discussion in specific directions, or identify student knowledge / level on the topic. Emerging questions derive from the discussion itself and the specific answers given to previous questions. Think quickly and act decisively to phrase these questions accurately and pose them at appropriate times in the discussion.
5. Use an appropriate variety and mix of questions. One good strategy is to start with convergent questions and then continue with divergent questions, perhaps asking questions in hierarchical sequence and building from the recall of facts to higher levels of thinking and problem-solving. If a question requiring a higher level thinking skill blocks the student, go down to a question requiring lower-level thinking skills and then work up the hierarchy.
6. Avoid trick questions and those that require only a YES or NO response. Trick questions should be avoided, as they frustrate students and tend to encourage frivolous responses. YES or NO questions encourage students to respond without fully understanding or thinking through the issue. When used, such questions should be followed by other questions to determine the thinking process of the student. **** However in English Language teaching, closed questions are encouraged at the beginning stages of language development.
7. Phrase the questions carefully, concisely, and clearly. Improper phrasing and the use of multiple questions related to the same topic may result in unintentional cueing (guessing) and inability to accurately assess student understanding.
8. Address questions to the group, versus the individual. Pose the question to the entire group and wait before identifying a student to respond. The wait time encourages all students to think about the response, as they do not know who is going to be called upon to answer the question. Select students at random to answer questions, as it tends to keep everyone attentive and involved.

9. Select both volunteers and non-volunteers to answer questions.
10. Adapt questions to the needs of the learners.
Assess the students’ needs and tailor questions to maximize the number of correct answers while moving toward more and more difficult questions. Remember, no two groups of students will be alike or at the same level.
11. Use sufficient wait time. The teacher can significantly enhance the analytic and problem-solving skills of students by allowing sufficient wait times before responding, both after posing a question and after the answer is given. This allows everyone to think about not only the question but also the response provided by the student. Three to five seconds in most cases; longer in some, maybe up to 10 seconds for higher-order questions.
12. Respond to answers given by students. Listen carefully to the answers given by students; do not interrupt students while they are responding to questions unless they are straying far off course, are totally unfocused, or are being disruptive. Acknowledge correct answers and provide positive reinforcement. Do not use sarcasm, reprimands, accusations, and personal attacks. Repeat answers only when the other students have not heard the answers; other repeats waste time. Keep questioning until the learning objectives for the session have been achieved; this may be the best opportunity to teach a particular concept. Handle incomplete answers by reinforcing what is correct and then asking probing questions.
13. Use questions to identify learning objectives for follow-up self-study. Pose questions towards the end of the teaching session to identify specific areas for additional learning opportunities that students can pursue on their own time.
Adapted from: The office of curriculum development, University of Alberta